Click here to visit the Kaleidoscope web site. Many people buy a new piece of clothing rather than spend time mending. Ciudad del Este, founded in , is now the second largest city and a major commercial center, with an estimated population of , Conflict over land intensified dramatically in the s, especially in the north and the eastern border region. We're interested on pre-colonial information.
Although the dominant conception of gender roles gives responsibility for the domestic sphere to women while men dominate in the public sphere, women have long had a central role in providing for their families and are economically active outside the home. They played a critical role as workers in national reconstruction after the War of the Triple Alliance. They have always played an important role in agriculture, both in subsistence production and in the production of cash crops on small peasant farms.
However, the economic contributions of women frequently go unrecognized because their agricultural work, and informal sector work performed within the household, are difficult to distinguish from domestic activities.
Recent surveys in urban areas indicate that women constitute at least one-third of the economically active population. Women are employed predominantly in domestic service and sales and as office workers, while men are employed across a wider range of activities. Women also are more heavily involved in the informal sector than are men. Women assumed more active roles in political parties and government after the fall of the Stroessner dictatorship in , and several women now have high-level positions in political parties, the legislature, and government ministries.
However, positions of power are still held overwhelmingly by men. Although men dominate the formal bureaucracy of the Catholic Church, women are important in the practice of folk Catholicism. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Paraguay is a conservative and male dominated society in which formal rights and privileges in many spheres were until recently denied to women. It was the last Latin American nation to grant women the right to vote Before the constitutional reforms of , married women could not work outside the home, travel, or dispose of their own property without the consent of their spouses.
Husbands had the right to dispose of conjugal property, including property the wife brought to the union, as they saw fit. The reforms modified those provisions, formally granting women equal rights and interests within the marriage. Women are also disadvantaged economically. A survey in the Asunción metropolitan area found that women earned only 56 percent as much as men. The earnings gap was larger for more highly educated and trained workers. Female-headed households are among the poorest in the society.
Marriages are formed by the choice of the couple and may be church, civil, or consensual unions. According to the census, 68 percent of women above age nineteen were in unions, of whom 78 percent were married in a church or civil ceremony.
Legal divorce is rare, although unions are often unstable, especially among the poor. Although it is a conservative Roman Catholic society, Paraguay has long been characterized by unstable consensual unions and a high illegitimacy rate. Men's extramarital behavior draws little criticism as long as it does not impinge on the family's security, but women's behavior reflects on the family, and women are expected to be faithful if they are in a stable union.
Most people live in a nuclear family that consists of a married couple and their unmarried children or a single woman and her children. In , 20 percent of households were A sub-tropical rainforest in the Mbaracayu Reserve. Only about one-third of Paraguay consists of rainforest; the other two-thirds are semiarid and infertile.
Extended households are rare, although relatively well-off urban families may take in the children of poorer rural relatives or those of an unwed female relative. The man holds formal authority within the family and is treated with respect by the children. The woman is responsible for managing the household, caring for the children, maintaining ties with extended kin, and often earning an income outside the home.
Land and other property pass by inheritance to a surviving spouse and then to biological or adopted children. The right to specify an alternative disposition of property is granted to the husband, but his wife may legally contest his decision. Family and extended kin are the most important center of loyalty and identity for individuals, and the ideal is an extensive and strong extended kin network. Kin may be called on to provide essential support and assistance in times of need, and the wealthy may mobilize extended kin to support their political ambitions.
In addition to kinship ties by marriage and birth, great importance is placed on fictive kin ties established through god-parenthood. Parents select godparents for their children's baptism, confirmation, and marriage. Those godparents have special rights and responsibilities toward their godchildren and are expected to assist in meeting a child's needs if necessary. Children are expected to show their godparents special deference and respect, but ties to the godchild's parents coparents may be even more important and extend beyond the death of the godchild.
Social equals and extended kin are preferred as godparents, although poorer parents may seek more influential benefactors as godparents for their children. Infants are showered with affection and attention by both women and men of all ages. A crying infant will be comforted instantly by the nearest adult or older child.
Infants typically are carried in the arms rather than in a sling or stroller. They usually are left to play on the ground or floor or are placed on a bed to sleep, although the use of playpens and cribs is common among the urban middle and upper classes.
Parents expect infants to be active and responsive. Child Rearing and Education. While middle-class and upper-class children are indulged and expected to devote themselves to studying and playing, the children of poorer urban and rural families are expected to assume productive work roles at a very young age. These children assist in agricultural work, household chores, and the care of younger siblings. It is not unusual for very young children to work as street vendors.
Physical discipline is common, and children are controlled through the threat of physical punishment. Formal education consists of six years of primary schooling followed by six years of secondary schooling. Primary education is compulsory from ages six to twelve, but there are not enough schools, especially in rural areas.
Although poor families value education, their children often must miss classes or drop out an early age to help the family financially. In , 90 percent of primary age children were enrolled, while only 34 percent of secondary age children were. Possession of a university degree is an important source of social prestige and access to higher-status jobs but is available to only a small proportion of the population.
Greetings vary by social class, gender, and the level of intimacy of the parties. Except in formal business situations, upper-class and middle-class women who are social equals greet each other with a kiss on each cheek, whether they are acquaintances or are meeting for the first time.
Male and female acquaintances in these social classes greet each other the same way. Men in all social classes shake hands in formal situations. Leave-taking follows the same rules. Paraguay is overwhelmingly Roman Catholic.
There are also several Protestant sects and small groups of the Baha'i, Buddhist, and Jewish faiths. Rituals and Holy Places. This day is celebrated with a pilgrimage led by religious and government officials to the holy shrine in Caacupé.
Death and the Afterlife. Beliefs and practices concerning death follow Roman Catholic tradition. The dead are interred in mausoleums, and the novena is traditionally observed, although this practice is declining in urban areas.
Traditionally, All Saints' Day is celebrated on 1 November by decorating deceased family members' tombs and gathering in cemeteries to honor the dead. Modern biomedical practices are combined with herbal and folk remedies.
Public health clinics and hospitals are inaccessible to many people, especially in rural areas, and the urban and rural working classes and the poor often depend on self-medication or private pharmacies for medical treatments.
Herbal remedies are used simultaneously with pharmaceuticals. Some herbal specialists exist, but most people are knowledgeable about the medicinal uses of common plants or resort to relatives or neighbors for advice on their use. Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension Day, and Corpus Christi are recognized as national holidays and are observed according to the religious calendar. The internal market for literature was constrained until recently by the poverty and the limited education of the majority of the population and by repression and censorship under Stroessner's dictatorship.
Nonetheless, there is an active literary tradition. Most literature is in Spanish, although contemporary authors may include Guarani phrases and dialogue in their works.
Traditional folk arts include ñanduti a spider web-like lace made in the town of Itaugua , ao poí embroidered cloth , several kinds of ceramic and clay work especially in the towns of Aregua and Tobatí , and silver filigree jewelry centered in the town of Luque. Paintings by contemporary A forest cleared for farming in eastern Paraguay. The country is known for slow and often melancholy harp and guitar music. Although European in origin, that music usually is performed in Guarani and reflects national themes.
Music is performed by ordinary people for entertainment at social gatherings and celebrations as well as by professional musicians. Performances of traditional dance, including the bottle dance so called because the performers balance bottles on their heads and polkas are popular. Theater was introduced by Francisco Solano López, and in the first Italian opera by a touring company was performed in Asunción's National Theater.
Theater today is centered in Asunción, and works occasionally are performed in Guarani as well as Spanish. The physical and social sciences as well as the humanities are taught at the two major universities National University and Catholic University , as are applied sciences agriculture and engineering and the professions.
Funding for basic research and teaching is limited, and the faculties were under close surveillance during the Stroessner years. The independent Paraguayan Center for Sociological Studies was established in , and has been the most important center for social science research.
In the last years of Stroessner's dictatorship, other private social science institutes were established, and the number of private research organizations grew rapidly after Stroessner's fall. These institutes obtain most of their funding from international sources. Ensayos Sobre Cultura Campesina, Man and Land in Paraguay, The Revolt of the Comuneros: A Study in the Colonial History of Paraguay, Historical Dictionary of Paraguay, La Lucha Por la Tierra en el Paraguay, Negotiating Democratic Corridors in Paraguay: The Personalist Legacy, Tobatí, A Paraguayan Town, Paraguay and the Triple Alliance: The Postwar Decade, —, Rebirth of the Paraguayan Republic: The First Colorado Era, —, The Politics of River Trade: Tradition and Development In the Upper Plata, —, Paraguay's Autonomous Revolution, —, The Rise and Fall of the Paraguayan Republic, —, History and Ethnic Relations Emergence of the Nation.
Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Until the mids, the majority of residents lived in rural areas, nearly all in the central region surrounding Asunción. Food and Economy Food in Daily Life. Social Stratification Classes and Castes. Social Welfare and Change Programs The government runs a system of underfunded and understaffed public health posts and hospitals and provides retirement benefits for employees of the government and state enterprises and veterans of the Chaco War.
Nongovernmental Organizations and Other Associations Workers are represented through four major unions. Marriage, Family, and Kinship Marriage. Etiquette Greetings vary by social class, gender, and the level of intimacy of the parties.
Medicine and Health Care Modern biomedical practices are combined with herbal and folk remedies. The Arts and Humanities Literature. The State of the Physical and Social Sciences The physical and social sciences as well as the humanities are taught at the two major universities National University and Catholic University , as are applied sciences agriculture and engineering and the professions. Paraguay under Stroessner, Also read article about Paraguay from Wikipedia.
I really have no comment I am trying to send this information to my email address. This article will help me with my environmental science project that we have due on culture.
I have had trouble finding this information, but now that I have found it, I would like to use it. In order to use it I need to send it to my email, in which I am having some difficulty doing. Sorry about the inconveneince. Would u mind trying to talk about the way they dress or that and talking about tourist attractions,sport food,music,religion and more because i am trying to do an assignment and it is due this Friday if u can try 2 help me with anything if that is alright by u though thanks.
This site was brilliantly informative for a project I have due tomorrow! I just wanted to say thank you and that this was one of the best online sources i found about Paraguay's culture! Hey this is pretty decent. Good Job, you just helped me do my powerpoint for my class today.
I am studying Epidemiology and am doing research for the culture of Paraguay. Reallyt helpfull on the report i am working on One question I'm not sure I've gotten an answer yet from the sources I've found: What is the indigenous name of Paraguay?
Is there a map of how it was divided by different types of indian groups? We're interested on pre-colonial information. Wow, this is really great! It helped me out a lot, thanks! Well-written, including many valuable facts. My only suggestion is that you say something about their clothing if you can find any information, because I can't find any. Otherwise, you did great! Lenhart hammered Ali with a hard right with 20 seconds left in the second round and hurt her with a left-right combination in the third.
Ali rallied to take the final three rounds with more decisive and disciplined punches as Lenhart tired. Both fighters looked nearly exhausted by the end of the bout. Lenhart - photo credit: Ali's credibility as a boxer got a further boost when Kendra Lenhart went on to knock out highly-favored several-time world champion Valerie Mahfood in Beaumont, Texas on April 19, , taking the vacant WIBF Super-Middleweight title.
Robinson absorbed Ali's right repeatedly in the early rounds but hung tough and landed a few hard rights of her own in the third. Ali became more aggressive and started leading with a left jab, keeping her right cocked, ready for an opening.
Robinson matched Ali punch for punch in the fourth, but Ali got the upper upper hand when she backed Robinson into a corner in the fifth. Ali threw a barrage of rights then put Robinson down for the count with a powerful left.
Robinson fell to 1 KO with the loss. The stage was set for a much-hyped Ali vs. This bout again attracted major media coverage, including being featured as the cover story in the week's TV Guide a first for women's boxing. Frazier IV more than the palest shadow of their fathers' famous encounters. The boxing press talked of the daughters sullying their fathers' reputations.
Some predicted a "Groaner in Verona". In a complete reversal of roles from the earlier generation, Ali was the quiet one during pre-fight press events, while Frazier-Lyde talked a blue streak, hurling taunts and jibes at Ali while "selling" the fight as a grudge match.
As the media spotlight on the two daughters broadened well beyond the usual scope of sports coverage, I just held my breath and hoped they would put on a good show. Nobody could reasonably have expected two boxers with single-digit fight experience to come close to matching the wars that their fathers had waged. In fact, Ali vs. Frazier IV , while far from the best boxing that female fighters produced in , turned out to be an entertaining toe-to-toe slugfest.
The scorecards were and an, in my view, absurd for Ali, while one card had it a draw at Frazier-Lyde started aggressively but Ali won the middle rounds. Frazier-Lyde looked like she might be in trouble but she charged back in the late going and staggered Ali several times in a rousing finish. The two biggest names among the blooming crop of " famous boxing daughters " had confounded some of the skeptics by putting on a show that might encouraged many to take a closer look at other women's boxing!
As she had done against Kendra Lenhart in her first six-rounder, Ali faded in the late going, and showed signs that she needed to work on her endurance if she had her sights set on ten-rounders against the best of her weight division, who now eagerly awaited her. Thumbnail photo of poster.. Weighing in at lbs, she cruised to a six-round unanimous decision over Shirvelle Williams lbs of St.
Williams ate left-right combinations and jabs throughout the bout after Ali took charge in the opening round with several hard rights. Williams tired in the middle of the fight but rallied in the fifth and sixth, only to eat more left-right combinations and body shots.
Williams landed a hard right in the sixth but Ali responded quickly with a booming left to the head. Williams ended the fight with a battered left eye and fell to 2 KO.
Courtesy photo by Team Laila Ali. This all done before a capacity crowd and a national PPV audience. Although this was not her most famous fight, this was a fight that will be remembered by Laila's fans everywhere.
Since it was a major PPV fight audiences could see the fight from their homes, local bars, or the cheap hotels that they were staying at.
Referee Kenny Bayless halted the scheduled rounder after titleholder Taylor absorbed a barrage of unanswered punches. Ali showed good hand speed and her body punching had Taylor in trouble in the opening round. Ali frequently beat Taylor to the punch and showed a combination of speed and power that spoke volumes about her progress as a boxer. Taylor fell to 7 KOs. Ali dominated the Texan, with whom she had testy exchanges before the fight. Both took some time to warm up in the first round but after this it was all Ali as she began to land hard left hooks to Mahfood's chin and bloodied Mahfood's nose with a straight right.
Ali began to work Mahfood's body in the fourth and Laila's digging left hooks paid dividends by the sixth round as Mahfood's gloves began to come down.
Ali began to unload on the flagging Mahfood in the seventh and started the eighth with a pounding right to the head that bloodied Mahfood some more. Ali later backed Mahfood to the ropes where she uncorked a fierce left-right-left combination that brought referee Joe Cortez in to save Mahfood from further punishment.
Ali said she was unhappy at the stoppage as she wanted to continue to pay Mahfood back for her prefight comments. Mahfood fell to 7 KO. Under new trainer Roger Mayweather, Ali has developed boxing skills to match the expectations that her name conjures up for the boxing community. Ali took the action to Almager in the opening round while still looking wary of Almager's southpaw stance and ring experience.
Almager looked overmatched by by Ali's quickness and reach in the second, and was swinging her punches, looking to tag Ali with one haymaker. Almager kept swinging in the third while Ali threw precise combinations and kept her distance well. Almager faded as Ali picked her apart with body shots in the fourth and the fight was stopped with Mary Ann clearly out of gas against the ropes and hurting from a hard right to the midsection.
The year-old Almager, who came out of retirement to take the fight, fell to 9 KO with the loss. Special Archived Poster Ali vs. Neither showed any reluctance to mix it up on the inside in this second matchup, but Ali found a home for a counter right hand that could shake Mahfood.
Mahfood landed some solid leather in exchanges in the third and fifth rounds and opened a small cut near Ali's eye in the fifth. In the sixth, Ali shook up Mahfood with a right hand with Mahfood on the ropes, then continued to smash Mahfood's head back with hard rights, prompting referee David Mendoza to stop the bout. Ali didn't look quite as sharp in this fight as she had in their first match last November, but she still had enough to overwhelm Mahfood.
That is when I decided to take her out then," said Ali, adding "I didn't underestimate her and she didn't underestimate me. I fought the way men fight, which is an exciting style like HBO wants.
It takes a star to make Women's boxing grow. I just hope that networks like HBO take notice. On August 23, at Mississippi Coast Coliseum and Convention Center, Biloxi, Mississippi, Laila lbs knocked out Christy Martin who had normally fought as a welterweight or junior welterweight but weighed in at lbs wearing bulky combat fatigues at 0: Christy Martin 5'4" had personified the sport in the 's but was at a severe height and reach disadvantage against Ali.
Ali again rocked Martin early in the second. Martin came back to land some shots near the end of the second round, but Ali knocked her down in the third with a string of quick hard uppercuts.
Martin was unable to counter Ali's reach advantage and get to within range to land combinations that might have slowed Ali down. She still fights like an amateur, but all around she was just too big.
She cracked me, but she didn't hurt me. The weight discrepancy in the Ali-Martin fight may have been much larger than advertised. Breakfast is eaten in the mid- to late morning, generally consisting of beans, salad, liver, and bread. Millet is the staple food, and is prepared as a porridge called asida or a flat bread called kisra. Vegetables are prepared in stews or salads. Ful, a dish of broad beans cooked in oil, is common, as are cassavas and sweet potatoes.
Nomads in the north rely on dairy products and meat from camels. In general, meat is expensive and not often consumed. Sheep are killed for feasts or to honor a special guest. The intestines, lungs, and liver of the animal are prepared with chili pepper in a special dish called marara.
Cooking is done in the courtyards outside the house on a tin grill called a kanoon, which uses charcoal as fuel. Tea and coffee are both popular drinks. Coffee beans are fried, then ground with cloves and spices. The liquid is strained through a grass sieve and served in tiny cups. A Rasheida resident employs a worker to mud-plaster his house. These mud structures are common in the northern region of the Sudan. Food Customs at Ceremonial Occasions.
At the Eid al-Adha, the Feast of the Great Sacrifice, it is customary to kill a sheep, and to give part of the meat to people who cannot afford it themselves. The Eid al-Fitr, or Breaking of the Ramadan Fast, is another joyous occasion, and involves a large family meal. The birthday of the Prophet Muhammad is primarily a children's holiday, celebrated with special desserts: Sudan is one of the twenty-five poorest countries in the world. It has been afflicted by drought and famine and by staggering foreign debt, which nearly caused the country to be expelled from the International Monetary Fund in Eighty percent of the labor force works in agriculture.
Yields have suffered in recent years from decreased rainfall, desertification, and lack of sufficient irrigation systems; currently only 10 percent of arable land is cultivated. Major crops include millet, groundnuts, sesame seed, corn, wheat, and fruits dates, mangoes, guavas, bananas, and citrus. In areas not conducive to farming, people many of them nomads support themselves by raising cattle, sheep, goats, or camels.
Ten percent of the labor force is employed in industry and commerce, and 6 percent in the government. There is a shortage of skilled workers, many of whom emigrate to find better work elsewhere. There also is a 30 percent unemployment rate. Land Tenure and Property. The government owns and operates the country's largest farm, a cotton plantation in the central El Gezira region. Otherwise, much of the land is owned by the different tribes. The various nomadic tribes do not make a claim to any particular territory.
Other groups have their own systems for landownership. Among the Otoro in the east-central region, for example, land can be bought, inherited, or claimed by clearing a new area; among the Muslim Fur people in the west, land is administered jointly by kin groups.
Souks, or markets, are the centers of commercial activity in the cities and villages. One can buy agricultural products fruits and vegetables, meat, millet there, as well as handicrafts produced by local artisans.
Industries include cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, and petroleum refining. The town of Omdurman, situated on the left bank of the White Nile. Together with Khartoum and North Khartoum, the city forms the vast urban region known as "the three towns.
Cotton is Sudan's primary export, accounting for more than a quarter of foreign currency that enters the country. However, production is vulnerable to climatic fluctuations, and the crop is often hurt by drought.
Livestock, sesame, groundnuts, oil, and gum arabic also are exported. Sudan imports large quantities of goods, including foodstuffs, petroleum products, textiles, machinery, vehicles, iron, and steel. It is traditional for children to follow in the professions of their parents; for the majority of the population, this means continuing in the farming lifestyle; 80 percent of the workforce is in agriculture; 10 percent is in industry and commerce; 6 percent is in government; and 4 percent is unemployed without a permanent job.
In many tribes, political positions, as well as trades and livelihoods, also are hereditary. It is possible nowadays for children to choose professions different from their parents', but most people are constrained by financial considerations.
There are facilities for training in a variety of professions, but Sudan still suffers from a shortage of skilled workers. Northern Sudanese have more access to education and economic opportunities and generally are better off than southerners.
In the south, many of the upper class and politically powerful are Christian and attended missionary schools. In many Sudanese tribes, class and social status are traditionally determined by birth, although in some cases it took a good deal of savvy by the upper classes to maintain their positions.
Among the Fur group, ironworkers formed the lowest rung of the social ladder and were not allowed to intermarry with those of other classes. Symbols of Social Stratification. Among some southern tribes, the number of cattle a family owns is a sign of wealth and status. Western clothing is common in the cities. Muslim women in the north follow the tradition of covering their heads and entire bodies to the ankles.
They wrap themselves in a tobe, a length of semi-transparent fabric which goes over other clothing. Men often wear a long white robe called a jallabiyah, with either a small cap or a turban as a head covering. In rural areas people wear little clothing, or even none at all. Facial scarring is an ancient Sudanese custom. While it is becoming less common today, it still is practiced. Different tribes have different markings. It is a sign of bravery among men, and beauty in women.
The Shilluk have a line of bumps along the forehead. The Nuer have six parallel lines on the forehead, and the Ja'aliin mark lines on their cheeks. In the south, women sometimes have their entire bodies scarred in patterns that reveal their marital status and the number of children they have had.
In the north, women often have their lower lips tattooed. Sudan has a transitional government, as it is supposedly moving from a military junta to a presidential system.
The new constitution went into effect after being passed by a national referendum in June The president is both chief of state and head of government. He appoints a cabinet which is currently dominated by members of the NIF. There is a unicameral legislature, the National Assembly, which consists of members: However, on 12 December , uneasy about recent reductions in his powers, President Bashir sent the military to take over the National Assembly.
The country is divided into twenty-six states, or wilayat. Each is administered by an appointed governor. Leadership and Political Officials. Government officials are somewhat removed from the people; on the local level, governors are appointed rather than elected. A military coup in reinforced the general feeling of distance between the government and much of the populace.
All political parties were banned by the military government. The new constitution legalized them, but this law is under review. The most powerful political organization is the NIF, which has a strong hand in government operations. Social Problems and Control. There is a twotiered legal system, of civil courts and religious courts. Previously, only Muslims were subject to religious rulings, but Bashir's fundamentalist government holds all citizens to its strict interpretation of Shari'a, or Islamic law.
Separate courts handle offenses against the state. Political instability has resulted in high crime rates, and the country is unable to prosecute many of its criminals. The most common crimes are related to the ongoing civil war in the country.
Religion and a sense of responsibility to the community are powerful informal social control mechanisms. The military is composed of 92, troops: The age of service is eighteen. A draft was instituted in to supply the government with soldiers for the civil war.
It is estimated that Sudan spends 7. The Sudanese government estimates that the civil war costs the country one million dollars a day. The government supports limited health and welfare programs. Health initiatives concentrate primarily on preventive medicine. Various aid organizations have played a role in helping Sudan deal with its significant economic and social problems, including the World Food Program, Save the Children Fund, Oxford Committee for Famine Relief, and Doctors without Borders.
The World Health Organization has been instrumental in eliminating smallpox and other diseases. Division of Labor by Gender. Women take care of all domestic tasks and child rearing. In rural areas it is traditional for women to work in the fields as well. While a woman's life in town was traditionally more restricted, it is increasingly common to see females employed outside the home in urban areas.
However, it is still the case that only 29 percent of the paid workforce is female. The Relative Status of Women and Men. Sudan is a patriarchal society, in which women are generally accorded a lesser status than men. However, after age forty, women's lives become less constrained. Men and women live largely separate lives, and tend to socialize primarily with members of their own sex. Men often meet in clubs to talk and play cards, while women usually gather in the home.
Several people gather at an irrigation canal in Gezira. The northern part of the country is desert. Marriages are traditionally arranged by the parents of the couple. This is still the case today, even among wealthier and more educated Sudanese. Matches are often made between cousins, second cousins, or other family members, or if not, at least between members of the same tribe and social class.
Parents conduct the negotiations, and it is common for a bride and groom not to have seen each other before the wedding. There is generally a significant age difference between husband and wife. A man must be economically self-sufficient and able to provide for a family before he can marry.
He has to be able to furnish an acceptable bride-price of jewelry, clothes, furniture, and among some tribes, cattle. Among the middle class, women usually are married after they finish school, at age nineteen or twenty; in poorer families or in rural areas, the age is younger. Polygyny was a common practice in the past. Divorce, although still considered shameful, is more common today than it once was.
Upon dissolution of a marriage, the bride-price is returned to the husband. Extended families often live together under the same roof, or at least nearby. Husband and wife typically move in with the wife's family for at least a year after marriage, or until they have their first child, at which point they move out on their own although usually to a house in close proximity to the wife's parents.
Islamic law has a provision for inheritance by the oldest male son. Other inheritance traditions vary from tribe to tribe. In the north, among the Arab population, property goes to the eldest son.
Among the Azande, a man's property which consisted primarily of agricultural goods was generally destroyed upon his death to prevent the accumulation of wealth. Among the Fur, property is usually sold upon the death of its owner; land is owned jointly by kin groups and therefore not divided upon death.
In different regions of Sudan, traditional clan structures function differently. In some regions, one clan holds all positions of leadership; in others, authority is delegated among various clans and subclans. Kinship ties are reckoned through connections on both the mother's and the father's side, although the paternal line is given stronger consideration.
There are several practices to protect newborn babies. For example, Muslims whisper Allah's name in the baby's ear, and Christians make the sign of the cross in water on his or her forehead. An indigenous tradition is to tie an amulet of a fish bone from the Nile around the child's neck or arm. Women carry their babies tied to their sides or backs with cloth. They often bring them along to work in the fields. Child Rearing and Education. Boys and girls are raised fairly separately.
Both are divided into age-specific groups. There are celebrations to mark a group's graduation from one stage to the next. For boys, the transition from childhood to manhood is marked by a circumcision ceremony. In the mids fewer than , children were enrolled in primary school, compared with more than 2 million today.
However, the south still has fewer schools than the north. Most of the schools in the south were established by Christian missionaries during colonial times, but the government closed these schools in In villages, children usually attend Islamic Three men sit by the river in the Ali-Abu region of Sudan.
Seventy percent of Sudanese are Sunni Muslim. They learn to read and write, to memorize parts of the Qur'an, and to become members of an Islamic community—boys usually attend between ages five and nineteen, and girls generally stop attending after age ten. Girls generally receive less education than boys, as families often consider it more valuable for their daughters to learn domestic skills and to work at home.
As payment at the khalwa, students or their parents contribute labor or gifts to the school. There also is a state-run school system, which includes six years of primary school, three years of secondary school, and either a three-year college preparatory program or four years of vocational training. Early in the twentieth century, under Anglo-Egyptian rule, the only educational institution beyond the primary level was Grodon Memorial College, established in in Khartoum.
The original buildings of this school are today part of the University of Khartoum, which was founded in The capital city alone has three universities. There also is one in Wad Medani and another in the southern city of Juba.
The first teacher training school, Bakht er Ruda, opened in , in the small town of Ed Dueim. In addition, a number of technical and vocational schools throughout the country offer training in nursing, agriculture, and other skilled professions. Ahfad University College, which opened in in Omdurman, as a girls' primary school, has done a great deal to promote women's education and currently enrolls about eighteen hundred students, all female.
Greetings and leave-takings are interactions with religious overtones; the common expressions all have references to Allah, which are taken not just metaphorically but also literally.
Food is an important part of many social interactions. Visits typically include tea, coffee, or soda, if not a full meal. It is customary to eat from a common serving bowl, using the right hand rather than utensils. In Muslim households, people sit on pillows around a low table. Before the meal, towels and a pitcher of water are passed around for hand washing. Seventy percent of the population are Sunni Muslim, 25 percent follow traditional indigenous beliefs, and 5 percent are Christian.
The word "Islam" means "submission to God.
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