Woman's White Mitts ca. Although banyans were styled to be loose and comfortable, they were nevertheless worn with a full set of clothing underneath, including shirt, breeches, and waistcoat.
If the family tradition is correct, these stockings were knitted about the time the Revolutionary War was ending when imported goods were still scarce. Carey; Linen trimmed with linen bobbin lace, gold. This lace-trimmed shirt and cuff links have a history of use by Jane Hodge later Mrs.
Thomas Nichols of Maine. She was born in The linked gold buttons descended in the family with the shirt, although their design appears earlier than the s; they may have been handed down from a previous generation. These mitts descended in a family of Philadelphia Quakers, a group conservative in their choice of clothing and accessories.
For that reason, the mitts, which appear fashionable for the s or s, might have been used well into the 19th century. The hand-painted ornament depicts the allegorical figure of Hope with her anchor.
The muff originally had strings or ribbons drawn through channels on the ends to snug the fit around the wrists. Faint stitch marks show the original position of the drawstring channels. Muffs were important fashion accessories during this period, worn even indoors. A watch chain would help secure a valuable watch from loss, while keeping it readily available for telling the time. Clark; Velvet and ribbed silk embroidered with silk, lined with silk, interlined and padded with wool and cotton batting, cotton pockets, reproduction breeches.
Eighteenth-century formal suits were often masterpieces of the embroiderer's art. This suit coat of rich blue cut and voided silk velvet is strewn with colorful flowers that are beautifully designed and worked with great skill. The coordinating waistcoat has the same flowers worked on a white ground. The family of Virginian John Minson Galt cherished his shoe buckles as mementos of the illustrious physician and patriot. A later family member relined the case and wrote the history on a piece of paper: John Minson Galt, Chief surgeon Va.
Military Troops during the Revolutionary War. Descended along with the portrait of Deborah Richmond of Connecticut The fan was a souvenir of Bath in England, perhaps presented to Deborah as a gift.
Garters using coiled metal springs encased in silk were invented in the s. They were intended to replace earlier garters that consisted of ribbons or tapes tied tightly around the leg.
Martin Van Butchell, a surgeon-dentist in England, applied for a patent for spring bands in , followed closely the next year by another English inventor named Jean Philippe, who applied for a patent using tempered steel in his spring garters. By the s, elastic was introduced, making spring garters obsolete.
Unlike knee-length shifts women wore beneath their gowns, this shortened style with front opening was used during the lying-in period following childbirth. The hip-length shifts would be easier than longer ones to keep stain-free during the mother's recuperation from childbirth. They were also more comfortable and convenient for sitting up in bed to receive company.
Stitch marks indicate that the shift originally had a drawstring under the bust. Although Van Rensselaer did not have any living children, one can speculate that she had prepared a set of clothing in anticipation of childbirth after her marriage to Philip Van Rensselaer. Perhaps she became pregnant, but the child miscarried. That she never had the opportunity to use the clothes may account for their survival. This banyan has waistcoat fronts attached at the side seams, which eliminated the extra layers of the closely fitted waistcoat back.
This arrangement made the banyan more comfortable without sacrificing appearance. This buckle was worn at the back of the neck to fasten a man's stock. Knobs on the buckle slipped over buttonholes worked into the tab of the stock.
Cora Ginsburg; Silk satin with silk and chenille needlework; vellum spangles; cotton-linen lining; linen interfacing. This waistcoat was made by a professional embroiderer. The embroidered outlines for buttonholes appear on both the left and right fronts but are cut open only on the left side.
This curious feature suggests that the panels were either sold as generic yardage intended for waistcoats or were originally designed for a double-breasted garment. As men's breeches became tighter toward the end of the eighteenth century, stretchy fabrics such as knits gained popularity.
The woman in the print, usually identified as Queen Charlotte, wears a patched pocket that is nevertheless stuffed with gold coins. The artist is satirizing her thrifty—even stingy—nature. Gown styles changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century.
Waistlines rose to just under the bust, textiles were soft and drapey, and skirts fell close to the body. Slim lines made it less practical to wear pockets under the skirts, spurring the fashion for handbags, also called reticules. Newly fashionable shawls added warmth to relatively thin garments. They also enhanced the elegant lines and classical appearance of clothing inspired in part by Greek and Roman art.
Shoes with low or flat heels coordinated well with the new neoclassical styles. Bound in one small volume is a calendar with pages for noting appointments, pages for cash accounts, and useful information for a well-born London woman, including lists of the members of Parliament, the baronets of England, princes of Europe, historical kings and queens of England, London bankers, school terms, and weights and measures.
The owner of this almanac noted that she had two visitors on May 2 and 5 Saturday and Tuesday and attended parties on May 13 and 14 Wednesday and Thursday and the following week on May 18 and 19 Monday and Tuesday.
The book also includes slots for storing sewing and writing implements, wool leaves for holding needles and pins, and a mirror. This stock is beautifully constructed from a lavish amount of material. Sixty-two inches of fine semi-sheer cotton are gathered into the three-inch wide linen tabs that fastened at the back of the neck. The stock has a history of being worn by John Knight d.
It is not known whether it was worn at his first marriage to Helen Charlotte Hope in or his second to Jane Elizabeth Winn in Not unlike neckties, stocks were traditional in their styling and did not change significantly between those two dates. Combining brilliant color, elegant materials, and heavy metallic embroidery, this suit epitomizes the richness of men's European court wear in the early 19th century. The silhouette is attenuated, with slim skirts and a high collar that reaches almost to the ears.
In contrast to earlier suits of the midth century, shoulders are more square and broad. The shape of the coat, which curves away from the body, hints at the cutaway coat that becomes the standard for men's formal dress into the 21st century.
Gignilliat; Ivory, watercolor, gilded copper alloy frame, reproduction ribbon. Stockings such as these were worn for extremely elaborate and formal occasions. Emperor Napoleon had a pair of stockings similar to these for his coronation. These stockings are marked in the knitting near the top hem, "Paris" and "Rue de la Paix," for the city and street.
This folding pocketbook is embroidered on the outside as well as on all six interior compartments with flowers and baskets in silk and metallic threads. Still inside the pocketbook are hand-painted and embroidered cards received or intended as Valentines. The sentiments, written in French, talk about honoring the recipients and sending greetings from the heart.
One of the cards is stitched with silk through paper in a reversible embroidery technique; the front and back are equally finished. The greeting is addressed to the embroiderer's "Cher papa" dear father and sends her love. This functional leather bag was used to carry mail for Clungunford House, the name engraved on the clasp. Located near Shrewsbury, Clungunford House pronounced "Clungerford" was the seat of the Rocke family. One of these gloves is stamped in ink on the interior "Felix Torruella Barcelona".
Gowns with long sleeves came into fashion in the s, and short gloves were more appropriate for the new style than elbow-length mitts or gloves.
Mary Louise Howson; Cotton embroidered with cotton, cotton and linen lace. Even everyday clothing kept pace with some fashion changes. This short gown has the high waist of late eighteenth and early nineteenth-century styles. Although stocking garters often consisted of woven ribbons that were tied tightly around the leg, later garters used metal springs, such as this, to give stretch. The garter has the word "ami" embroidered in. Johnson; Silk lined with cotton, cotton back.
A paper tag accompanying the waistcoat stated that New Englander Peter Speer wore it as his wedding vest in The purple and black silk textile is woven with a design of bald eagles, the national emblem of the United States since The cotton lining retains the stamp of the Charlestown Bleachery, a textile finishing plant established in under its full name, Charlestown Bleachery and Dye Works.
The plant was located in Somerville, then part of Charlestown, Massachusetts. Although the style of this hat looks eighteenth century, it was made in the nineteenth century. The label glued to the crown lining identifies the maker as Philip Heitshu, son of a German immigrant to Philadelphia. After a period of time spent in Loudoun County, Virginia, Heitshu moved to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in and opened a hat manufactory.
He retired from the business in If a wearer is old-fashioned or thrifty, his or her clothes might date much later than stylistic features would suggest. Some suits of livery were highly elaborate in appearance, despite the relatively low status of the wearer. The suits were intended to proclaim the wealth of the employer, not the employee.
Men's long trousers began to enter high fashion during the late eighteenth century. Prior to that time, only laborers, sailors, and young boys wore long pants. The conversion to the new mode was gradual. By , however, most men had adopted long pants for daily wear. Only formal suits, such as those worn at court, continued to have knee-length breeches into the middle of the nineteenth century. Spotswood; Gold, silver, enamel, glass, hair. The rectangular brooch has woven hair beneath the glass and bears an inscription memorializing M.
Brooches such as this were sometimes worn centered on women's collars. In the s, neoclassical styles had moderated. Waistlines began to drop, sleeves widened, and skirts gradually became fuller, often embellished with trimming around the hem. Fine cashmere or wool shawls from India and Paisley, Scotland, were especially fashionable accessories. Some gowns had separate removable sleeve extensions to add variety to a gown with short sleeves. In the late s and s, sleeves became extremely wide.
Loose cloaks with capes on the shoulders went over wide sleeves better than a fitted coat would have. Because hairstyles were puffed up in curls and topknots, women used bonnets with boning or reeds for shaping to avoid crushing the hair.
Muffs continued to be used for warmth, but were also a fashionable accessory carried indoors. According to the family history stitched to the inside of this folding pocketbook, a schoolgirl attending classes in Litchfield, Connecticut, made this pocketbook for her father, Asahel Bradley of Stockbridge, Massachusetts.
The Litchfield Female Academy, founded in , taught girls from around the country. The curriculum included needlework and watercolor painting, as well as academic subjects. Bradley must have cherished the pocketbook for many years. It is stuffed with letters, mementos, newspaper clippings, and poetry dating from to Several of the letters refer to the death of Bradley's two young grandsons in The pocketbook is embellished with hand-done wool needlework covering a linen canvas ground.
Called in the period "Irish stitch," the needlework involved vertical stitches on the surface of the canvas, stepping over three or four squares of the canvas at a time, often in a zig-zag pattern.
Today the work is sometimes called "Florentine, bargello, or flame stitch. For symbolic reasons, British barristers continue to wear 18th-century style wigs hundreds of years after wigs have ceased to be worn as fashion. By the date of this wig, fashionable men were wearing their own hair, not wigs. Griffith, Esquire, whose name is painted on the wig's tin box, was Walter Hussey Griffith of Ireland.
He was born in and became a barrister in He was still practicing in Dublin in , when he appeared in the city directory with an office at 13 Clare Street. His son Walter Downes Griffith also became a barrister, as did his grandson, named Walter Hussey Griffith after his grandfather. This leather bag came with a French horn musical instrument made in Paris. The musical compositions are horn parts for orchestral music. According to family tradition, the cap was worn by one of two sisters, either Hepsibah Melendy or Sarah Melendy, of Amherst, New Hampshire.
Mature women typically wore caps that covered more of their hair than those worn by younger women. This case is fitted with a mirror inside, not unlike a makeup mirror or compact of today. Inside the case is a package of three tiny needles wrapped in a paper folder; the needles were manufactured in Philadelphia. One of the early owners left examples of her miniature writing inside the case.
The Lord's Prayer "Our Father" is written on a piece of paper less than one inch square. First published in , his songbook entitled Southern and Western Songster was enlarged and republished in The text of the song reads as follows:. But soon as Spring enrich'd with flowers Comes dancing oer the new-dress'd plain Return and cheer thy Natal bowers My Robin with those notes againv [Indented] Return and cheer thy natal. Decorative aprons were a popular accessory.
Examples such as this were more for show than for function. Stenciling was done with dye or paint tamped through cut-out designs on a stencil. The technique was especially popular for bed covers and other household furnishings in the second quarter of the 19th century.
By the s, many daytime dresses had high necklines and back closures, which required modifications to their design for nursing.
In this example, the bodice front was made with a loose panel that could be unfastened at the waist and raised for nursing. Carey; Silk satin, linen, leather, silk ribbon ties. Lacy pattern-knit stockings were especially fashionable in the s and early s. The couple moved to Wilmington, Delaware after their marriage. By the s cartoonists were lampooning steam-powered vehicles and locomotives that had been invented in the early s and were becoming increasingly popular. This printed design, adapted from the work of Charles Jameson Grant British satirist, active , shows an artist's humorous view of what transportation would be like in the year Obviously, the artist had limited success in predicting the future.
By the middle of the 19th century, men's court suits followed a formula: Styled like a fashionable suit of 80 years earlier, this coat has a center-back vent and pleats trimmed with buttons at the top and peeking out from inside the folds.
By the s, women's gowns had extremely full skirts that contrasted with narrow waists. Women stood with heads carried forward and rounded backs, rather than the straight posture of a century earlier. Men's fashionable daytime suits had lapelled coats and long trousers. This short jacket became the basic model for men's suit coats over the next years.
Purse or "Sweet Bag" ; England; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver and silver gilt metallic threads, and pearls on linen canvas Acc. Drawstring Bag ; England; Silk, metallic threads, linen ground, wood Acc. Rectangular Canvaswork Purse ; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk and metallic needlework on linen canvas This bag has worked eyelets for a drawstring, which is missing; the long braided handle is a later replacement. Man's Glove with Pink Cuff ; England; Leather, silk, silver gilt metallic threads, purl, and plate Gloves were important fashionable and symbolic accessories for men and women.
Gold Knitted Glove ; England; Knitted silk, silver and gold metallic threads, linen, unknown stiffening Acc. White Linen Collar or "Falling Band" ; England; Linen, linen bobbin lace The term "falling band" describes the transition away from heavily starched standing ruffs, or bands, that men and women wore around their necks before about Garters ; Mediterranean area, probably Algeria for export; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Woven silk Garters consisted of long narrow ribbons or tapes tied tightly over the stocking tops.
Stocking or Long Purse ; England; Anonymous gift; Silk sprang embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads This purse is made in an ancient technique called sprang, in which threads are stretched on a frame and manipulated with the fingers to interlink or twine them, working from the ends toward the middle, and often using a stick to control the twists and keep them from unraveling. Green Woven Purse with Ribbon Fringe ; England or Europe, possibly Italy; Anonymous gift; Silver wire, silks Small decorative purses were popular accessories for presenting gifts of money and for holding sweet-smelling herbs and perfumed substances.
Woman's Mule or Slipper ca. Les Details de l'Habillement du Courtisan ; France; Hand-colored line engraving on paper; Sebastien Le Clerc A man and woman in stylish seventeenth-century dress stand in a millinery shop stocked with textiles, lace, and other accessories. Walking Stick ; England; Gift of Dr. Robert Irving Upshur; Silver, malacca cane similar to bamboo , iron Acc.
Man's Gloves ; England; Leather embroidered with silver gilt and silk Acc. Man's Undress Cap ca. Cora Ginsburg; Ribbed silk embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads Acc. Woman's or Man's Pocketbook ; France; Silk satin embroidered with silk, silver, and silver gilt Richly embellished bags were used for a variety of purposes. Cream-color Kerchief s; Europe; Gift of the Honorable Irwin Untermyer; Silk and metallic thread needlework on silk Many women wore embroidered kerchiefs around their necks and shoulders to fill in the low necklines of their gowns.
Peach Kerchief probably s; Possibly India for export; Gift of the Honorable Irwin Untermyer; Some colorful silk embroidered kerchiefs were associated with Jewish weddings in Europe, worn by brides as a symbol of modesty and as a festive accessory. Spectacles with Case case ca. Silk and Metallic Embroidered Purse ca. Woman's White Mitts ca.
Infant's Shirt top ; Britain; Anonymous gift; Linen decorated with linen Hollie point needlework and bobbin lace Baby clothes were usually sewn with minute seams and fine stitches. Undress Cap Linen; Britain or America, eighteenth century; This plain cap is typical of the style worn by most men while laboring or sleeping. Apron missing waistband , made by or for Jane Riggs ; England; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Cotton embroidered with linen This delicate apron has two small circles in which the owner's name or initials and the year are worked in drawn work.
Cora Ginsburg; Silk embroidered with silk and metallic threads, lined with block-printed cotton Women wore decorative stomachers to fill in the fronts of their open bodices. Stomacher front and back ; Britain; Silk embroidered with silk and metallic threads, lined with block-printed cotton Women wore decorative stomachers to fill in the fronts of their open bodices. Garter ; England; Tablet woven silk Stocking garters consisted of ribbons or other woven tapes that were tied tightly around the leg.
Woman's Shoes ; England; Silk brocaded with silver gilt, lined with linen and silk, leather soles, wooden heels Acc. Apron ; England; Anonymous gift; Silk embroidered with metallic threads Some aprons were fashionable, not functional. Shield-Shaped Purse, front and back ; France or Germany; Silk embroidered with silk and silver-gilt threads Small purses embroidered with silk and metal threads were often used as elaborate packaging for gifts of money.
Red Embroidered Cap ; Europe, probably Italy; Anonymous gift; Silk and metallic threads on silk, silver lace, silk-wrapped vellum topknot, linen lining, unknown stiffening possibly paper Acc. Apron ; England; Anonymous gift; Silk embroidered with silk and silver metallic threads, replaced waistband and ribbon Elegant silk and silver embroidery edges the apron and outlines what were originally intended as two pocket openings near the waist.
Boy's Waistcoat , altered later in eighteenth century; Britain; Anonymous gift; Cotton embroidered with linen, linen-cotton back, lining missing This child's white embroidered waistcoat was made from a larger one sized to fit a man.
David Stockwell; Oil on canvas The posture, clothing, and accessories of the members of this gentry family signal high status, a leisurely lifestyle, and awareness of the latest fashions. Theodore Dreier; Silk brocaded with silk Brocaded silks of the s had bold designs that appeared three-dimensional. Woman's Pocket , repaired later; England; Gift of Mrs. Cora Ginsburg; Linen embroidered with silk through coarser linen interlining, replaced linen lining and backing This pocket probably was the product of a professional embroiderer who did needlework for a living.
Apron ; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen, later waistband Acc. Fan ; China for export to west; Ivory, painted paper, metal and paste rivet Acc. Stock ; England; Linen, silk marking thread; paper An envelope asserts that this was the "Stock of George 2nd," king of England from to Yellow Shoes with Braid Trim ca. Yellow Brocaded Shoes and Buckles , the buckles possibly ca. Thomas Ridout and James Davis Acc. Watch with Chatelaine Henry Fish ; London, England; Gold, rose gold, glass, copper alloy, steel, lead, pinchbeck copper-zinc alloy , cornelian a semi-precious gemstone , chalcedony quartz crystal , paper, silk velvet Chatelaines were brooches or hooks suspended from the waist with pendants of useful implements, such as household keys, thimble cases, seals, watches, and the like.
Unmade Sleeve Ruffle ; Europe; Cotton embroidered with linen Sleeve ruffles were usually shaped to be narrower at the inside crook of the arm, gradually lengthening so they fell gracefully from the back of the elbow. Gown textile , gown remade ; British textile, possibly worn in New York; Worsted damask, bodice lined with linen, reproduction kerchief and petticoat A widow may have worn this black worsted gown.
Gamble Fans often celebrated current events, such as the Battle of Portobello, an acclaimed British victory over the Spanish in Panama.
Cap ; Brussels; From the collection of Marian Powys; Linen bobbin lace Although women's everyday caps were made of plain white linen or cotton, expensive dress caps were sometimes fashioned from handmade lace.
Breeches ; Europe or Britain; Uncut and voided velvet trimmed with metallic tape and buttons, waistband lined with linen Typical of men's breeches before about , this pair fastens with a buttoned placket down the center front. Miniature Portrait of William Gooch ; London, England; Enamel on copper, gold; Studio of Christian Friedrich Zincke As the engraved inscription around the miniature indicates, William Gooch died in at the age of Formal Gown ; altered ; Britain; Silk brocaded with silk and silver gilt threads, stomacher trimmed with silver-gilt lace and silk flowers, bodice lined with linen, sleeves lined with silk, reproduction neck ruffle Despite remodeling that is especially evident in the piecing of the sack back, this gown has superlative beauty.
Shoe Buckles ; England; Silver, paste, steel Acc. Man's Pocketbook ; Constantinople or Mediterranean area; Silk satin embroidered with silk and silver gilt metallics Acc. Mannequin ; Various objects, seen on the following pages From to , women's gowns had closely-fitted bodices, sleeves that usually ended just below the elbows, and full skirts.
Mannequin ; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, shirt, stock, breeches, stockings, and shoes The well-dressed man needed more than a suit to assure his place in fashionable society. Spectacles ; Possibly England; Steel, tortoise, glass Acc. Stocking Purse ; England; Anonymous gift; Silk sprang oblique frame twining , metallic threads Acc. William Meredith; Silver metallic threads and silver plate on wooden form, linen thread Acc.
Walking Stick ; England; Gold, malacca; marked I. Walking Stick ; England; Gilded copper alloy, lacquered ebony, reproduction tassel Acc. Stockings, Possibly Women's ca. Sleeve Buttons Cuff Links mids; probably America; Gold; marked IB in rectangle maker unidentified Women sometimes wore sleeve buttons to fasten their shift sleeves.
Brooch mids; Probably Europe; Garnets, pearls, gold, paste repairs Acc. Banyan and Matching Waistcoat ca. Man's Cocked Hat ; Britain, worn in New Hampshire; Felted fur trimmed with silk, lined with linen Josiah Bartlett, a signer of the Declaration of Independence and the first governor of New Hampshire, wore this cocked hat. Women's or Men's Stockings ca.
Gown and Petticoat ca. Cora Ginsburg; Silk brocaded with silver and silver gilt, lined with silk and linen, trimmed with later silver lace This sumptuous gown is fashioned from stiff silk brocaded with glittering metallic silver to reflect the available light. Quilted Petticoat ; Connecticut River Valley; Silk quilted to worsted backing, woolen batting, linen waistband; made by S.
Hat ; England; Silk over straw, replaced ties Acc. Apron ; England; Cotton embroidered with cotton, replaced waistband The embroidery is worked with chain stitches and large areas of "drawnwork," in which the ground fabric is deflected, pulled, and caught with stitches to imitate lace. Woman's Workbag ; England; Silk embroidered with silk, metallic sequins, enameled metal, and silver lace This clever workbag incorporates four compartments for needlework and knitting supplies: Pocketbook with Lock of Hair ; France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silver gilt metallic threads, paint, paperboard, hair Inside this pocketbook is a lock of silky hair, probably that of a child.
Stock Buckle ; England; Silver, paste stones, steel Despite its glittering stones, this buckle would have been worn at the back of the neck, nearly hidden by the gentleman's coat collar and wig.
Stays ; Possibly America; Worsted wool lined with linen, leather binding, unidentified boning These strapless stays laced up the front instead of the back. Suit Coat, Waistcoat, and Breeches ; British textile, probably worn in Virginia; Partial gift of Diane Taylor; Silk velvet trimmed with silver-bullion-and-tinsel buttons, lined with silk, linen, and linen-cotton According to family history, a twentieth-century customer gave this suit to his tailor to settle an unpaid bill.
Stock Buckle ; Probably England; Silver, paste stones The knobs on one side of the buckle were slipped into worked buttonholes on the tab of a neck stock. Suit Coat, Waistcoat, and Breeches ; Britain; Compound-weave silk relined with modern silk and linen, breeches waistband lined with eighteenth-century linen-cotton, leather breeches pockets Small-scale enclosed patterns such as the design of this silk textile were considered especially appropriate for men's suits.
Gown , remodeled ca. Apron ; Britain; Cotton embroidery on cotton Acc. Miniature Portrait of a Member of the Fauquier Family, used as Bracelet ; England, London; Gift of Gilbert Fauquier in memory of his father, Gilbert Emilius Fauquier; Watercolor on paper or cardstock, glass, gold, rubies, paste stones backed with silver foil, garnet, reproduction ribbon; John Smart ca. Coat ; England or Europe; Silk, metallic sequins and threads, linen Acc.
Wig Stands ; England; Mahogany Acc. Shoe and Knee Buckles with Case ; Britain, worn in New York by members of the Glen-Sanders family; Steel, paste, shagreen leather, silk, paper A paper inscription glued to the bottom of the buckle case states that Philip and Maria Van Rensselaer wore these buckles at their wedding about it actually occurred in and that their descendants, J. Formal Suit ; France; Silk embroidery and appliquéd silk net on striped silk and ribbed silk, lined with silk and cotton-linen The combination of multicolor embroidery on a striped ground enhances the richness of this suit.
Handkerchief, Hunting Song, R. Collar Made from Sleeve Ruffles ca. Epstein; Cotton embroidered with cotton Sleeve ruffles cascading from the elbows went out of fashion with the newer neoclassical styles. Pudding Cap ; Britain; Cotton velvet lined with leather, bound with silk, stuffed with curled horsehair Puddings were protective helmets for children learning to walk.
Banyan ; East Indian textile, made in Britain; Mordant-painted and dyed cotton chintz faced with silk, lined with cotton; shown with cap This banyan is more closely tailored than the large kimono-like gowns men also wore for informal occasions.
Petticoat ; New England or Britain; Linen-wool, wool hem binding, linen waistband The striped petticoat is woven with linen warps and wool wefts. Man's Pink Waistcoat ; Britain; Silk and silver tissue edged with sequins, lined with silk and linen Acc. Man's Cream Waistcoat ; Britain; Silk embroidered with silk, metal purl, sequins, and paste, lined with silk and linen, linen back Acc. Frock Coat ; Britain; Wool broadcloth trimmed with gilt-metallic edging and sequins, lined with glazed worsted and linen Acc.
Handkerchief, "Claiming the Gammon of Bacon" ; England; Plate-printed cotton The English village of Dunmow in Essex had a long-standing tradition in which a married couple that had remained faithful and happy for a year could claim a "gammon" of bacon.
The verse on the handkerchief reads: Cora Ginsburg; Line engraving on paper; Matthew or Mary Darly The expectant women in this humorous print wear a variety of kerchiefs and aprons to adapt their clothing to changing body shapes.
Shoe Buckles ; England; Silver, paste stones, steel Acc. Handkerchief, "The Right Hon. Spectacles with Case ; Possibly America; Spectacles: Shoe Buckles with Case ; England; Buckles: Man's Pink Waistcoat ; Britain; Silk trimmed with silk and metallic embroidery and sequins, lined with linen Acc. Short Gown ; Textiles printed in England; gown worn in America; Block printed cotton; linen tape; linen sewing thread For physical labor and very informal occasions, women wore loose short gowns with separate petticoats as comfortable alternatives to tight-fitting gowns with long, full skirts.
Apron ; America; Gift of Evelyn Schroedl; Linen marked with silk; made by E F Workingwomen wore aprons of washable linen or cotton, sometimes patterned with checks, such as this example.
Man's Wallet and Notebook ; England; Leather, paper, steel William Daniel had his wallet personalized with his name and the date Benjamin Franklin ; Engraved by John Martin Will after a drawing by Charles Nicolas Cochin, France; Mezzotint engraving on paper Through his personality and wearing apparel, Benjamin Franklin helped to create the belief that Americans were individualistic, freedom-loving, and immune to royal trappings.
Formal or Court Gown ; Britain; Silk woven with silver-gilt threads, trimmed with silver gilt lace, sequins, gimp, and tassels, bodice lined with linen This gown is a dramatic example of a time lag in formal clothing.
Handkerchief, "The Game of the Goose" ; England; Cotton, plate-printed Women frequently carried handkerchiefs in their large tie-on pockets. Pocketbook with Comb, Folding Knives and Nail File, Lead Holder, and Writing Tablet probably , altered , with later pencil; England; Silk, gold, enamel, mother-of-pearl, ivory, steel, copper alloy, amber, paste jewels Fitted interior compartments house the functional but beautiful implements inside: Kerchief ; England or Europe; Cotton embroidered with silk Throughout the 18th century, women wore triangles or folded squares of fabric over the shoulders and around their necks for warmth, modesty, and decoration.
Cream Work Bag or Purse ca. Green Calash Collapsible Bonnet ca. Black Calash Collapsible Bonnet ca. Maternity Ensemble ; Britain; Cotton quilted to linen backing and cotton batting, reproduction shift This ensemble consists of a jacket, petticoat, and a vest worn under the jacket. Breeches ; Britain; Mohair and wool velvet lined with cotton Long-nap wool or mohair velvet, called shagg, was popular for workingmen's clothing and livery breeches. Unmade Waistcoat ; France, possibly imported to Virginia; Silk compound weave with supplementary wefts Intended for a man's waistcoat, this panel descended in an Accomack, Virginia, family.
Infant's Shirt and Sleeve Buttons bottom ca. Carey; Linen trimmed with linen bobbin lace, gold This lace-trimmed shirt and cuff links have a history of use by Jane Hodge later Mrs. Mitts ; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Cotton These mitts descended in a family of Philadelphia Quakers, a group conservative in their choice of clothing and accessories. Muff ; Europe, possibly France; Silk, silk chenille and gauze, metallic sequins and bullion, paint; replaced lining and cotton stuffing The hand-painted ornament depicts the allegorical figure of Hope with her anchor.
Lady's Pocket Watch ca. Clark; Velvet and ribbed silk embroidered with silk, lined with silk, interlined and padded with wool and cotton batting, cotton pockets, reproduction breeches Eighteenth-century formal suits were often masterpieces of the embroiderer's art.
Pink Stocking Purse ; Probably England; Anonymous gift; Knitted silk top; buttonhole stitched needle lace base of silk and metallic threads; metal ring Acc.
Shoe Buckles and Case ca. Alex after a painting by Amédée Vanloo Acc. Spring Garter ; Probably France; Gift of Cora Ginsburg; Silk, metal springs Garters using coiled metal springs encased in silk were invented in the s. Cora Ginsburg; Linen Unlike knee-length shifts women wore beneath their gowns, this shortened style with front opening was used during the lying-in period following childbirth.
Banyan with Attached Waistcoat Fronts ; Europe; Block-printed cotton lined with linen This banyan has waistcoat fronts attached at the side seams, which eliminated the extra layers of the closely fitted waistcoat back.
Cora Ginsburg; Silk satin with silk and chenille needlework; vellum spangles; cotton-linen lining; linen interfacing This waistcoat was made by a professional embroiderer. Mannequin ; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, headband, and stockings Gown styles changed dramatically at the end of the 18th century.
Bound Almanac with Needle Case and Mirror: The Polite Repository, or Pocket Companion ; London, England; Leather, silver, paper, silk, wool Bound in one small volume is a calendar with pages for noting appointments, pages for cash accounts, and useful information for a well-born London woman, including lists of the members of Parliament, the baronets of England, princes of Europe, historical kings and queens of England, London bankers, school terms, and weights and measures.
Oval Knee Buckles ca. Stock ; England; Cotton, linen This stock is beautifully constructed from a lavish amount of material. Formal or Court Suit ; Spain; Silk velvet, silk woven with silver threads, and silk twill, all embroidered with silver gilt, sequins, and beads, lined with silk and cotton-linen, reproduction ruffles Combining brilliant color, elegant materials, and heavy metallic embroidery, this suit epitomizes the richness of men's European court wear in the early 19th century.
Miniature Portrait in Pendant: Gignilliat; Ivory, watercolor, gilded copper alloy frame, reproduction ribbon Acc. Shawl ; Kasmir, India; Woven cashmere goat wool Acc. Stockings, Probably for a Man ; Paris, France; Knitted silk, silver gilt bouillon embroidery Stockings such as these were worn for extremely elaborate and formal occasions.
Pocketbook with Valentines ; France; Anonymous gift; Silk, silk and metallic embroidery threads, silver lace, paper, parchment, paint This folding pocketbook is embroidered on the outside as well as on all six interior compartments with flowers and baskets in silk and metallic threads. Mail or Post Bag ; England; Leather, brass, iron This functional leather bag was used to carry mail for Clungunford House, the name engraved on the clasp.
Mary Louise Howson; Cotton embroidered with cotton, cotton and linen lace Acc. Short Gown ; America; Roller-printed cotton lined with linen Even everyday clothing kept pace with some fashion changes. Johnson; Silk lined with cotton, cotton back A paper tag accompanying the waistcoat stated that New Englander Peter Speer wore it as his wedding vest in Woman's Hat ; Lancaster, Pennsylvania; Felted fur lined and trimmed with silk, paper label; made by Philip Heitshu and Son Although the style of this hat looks eighteenth century, it was made in the nineteenth century.
Livery Coat and Waistcoat ; Britain; Wool broadcloth trimmed with wool livery lace, lined with wool and linen Some suits of livery were highly elaborate in appearance, despite the relatively low status of the wearer. Trousers ; Possibly United States; Silk satin, waistband lined with cotton, cotton pockets Men's long trousers began to enter high fashion during the late eighteenth century.
Spotswood; Gold, silver, enamel, glass, hair The rectangular brooch has woven hair beneath the glass and bears an inscription memorializing M. Mannequin ; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig and plume In the s, neoclassical styles had moderated. Mannequin ; Various objects, seen on the following pages; reproduction wig, undergown, and gloves In the late s and s, sleeves became extremely wide.
Man's Pocketbook with Letters ca. Barrister's Wig and Box ; Ireland; Horsehair, silk, painted tin For symbolic reasons, British barristers continue to wear 18th-century style wigs hundreds of years after wigs have ceased to be worn as fashion.
Cap ; New Hampshire; Gift of Mr. Muff ; Pennsylvania; Silk with silk and metallic embroidery, metal beads, and applied silk, wool, and cotton textiles Acc. The text of the song reads as follows: Stenciled Apron ; America; Cotton, paint Decorative aprons were a popular accessory. Nursing Dress ; Britain or America; Gift of Tasha Tudor; Roller-printed and plain cottons, modern hooks and snaps By the s, many daytime dresses had high necklines and back closures, which required modifications to their design for nursing.
Shoes late s; Massachusetts, worn in Maine; Gift of Mr. Carey; Silk satin, linen, leather, silk ribbon ties Acc. Flower Basket Purse ca. Lewis Rumford; Knitted silk, marked ECM with silk Lacy pattern-knit stockings were especially fashionable in the s and early s. Collar or Pelerine ca. Formal or Court Suit: Women and girls also wore leggings in many tribes, but female leggings were shorter and were not attached to a belt, simply gartered at the knee. What is an apron panel? A breechcloth apron , breechcloth cover or apron panel refers to a decorated piece of leather or cloth that men wore over their breechclout for special occasions.
They were especially used with the short or fitted style of breechcloth. Today a breechcloth apron is often worn with traditional men's outfits that used to include a breechcloth, but no longer do.
Breechcloth aprons are usually handmade and either painted, embroidered, or decorated with beadwork or quillwork to make them attractive. What did breechcloths and leggings look like when they were worn?
Cree boys in loincloths playing a hoop game. The four boys in this picture are all wearing breechcloths. The second boy from the left is also wearing leather leggings. You can see how they attach to his belt at the hip. A lot of kids get confused by the way Indian loincloths look when they are being worn. They assume that the breechclout is just a rectangle of cloth hanging from the belt, like a washcloth pinned to a clothesline, and that Native Americans like these boys are naked underneath the cloth.
The cloth winds over the belt, under it, and over it again. If one of the boys lifted his flap, you would see the rest of his breechcloth, which looks a little like underwear. Do Native Americans still wear breechcloths with leggings today? In everyday life, Native American men usually wear jeans or other modern pants.
Some people do wear traditional leggings as part of their regalia ceremonial clothes used for dances, weddings, or other festivals. However, very few Native American men wear a breechcloth anymore for any reason other than a historical movie.
Some Native American men still wear the fancy apron panels with their regalia, like the straight dancer at the left the apron is the red cloth panel with floral designs on it, and it would be covering this man's breechclout if he was wearing one. In reality, though, modern Native American men almost always have shorts underneath instead of a breechclout. Only older people in a few tribes, such as the Mexican Kickapoos, still wear breechcloths.
Here are some photographs of different kinds of Native American leggings Plains Style Leggings These Eastern Shoshone leggings follow the bowed Plains Indian style, with fringes on the outer seams and beaded designs on the bottom.
Naskapi Leggings These are tubular northern style leggings, made of caribou hide and painted with geometric patterns. Womens Leggings These are women's leggings, so they only go as far up as the knee.
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